Skip to main content

Full text of "Anti-illusion: procedures/materials."

See other formats


Anti-Illusion: Procedures/Materials 




Andre 

Asher 

Benglis 

Bollinger 

Duff 

Ferrer 

Fiore 

Glass 

Hesse 

Jenney 

LeVa 

Lobe 

Morris 

Nauman 

Reich 

Rohm 

Ryman 

Serra 

Shapiro 

Snow 

Sonnier 

Tuttle 




't 




Anti-Illusion : Procedures/ Materials 



^-li'^ 




■■ ■>^-'»^,. 



Mayl9,1969-July6, 1969 
Whitney Museum of American Art 
New York 



This exhibition, which includes film, music 
and extended-time pieces as well as 
sculpture and painting, was made possible 
by the extraordinary interest and encour- 
agement of the Whitney's Director, John 
I. H. Baur— we are deeply grateful for his 
support. Stephen E. Weil, Administrator 
of the Museum, made it possible for us to 
present a series of evening events as part 
of the exhibition. 

Richard Tuttle's Octagons were made 
available through the generosity of The 
Betty Parsons Gallery. We would also like 
to thank Klaus Kertess, Paula Cooper and 
Jock Truman for their help in locating 
new work for the exhibition. 

Robert Fiore, who did the photographs for 
the catalogue, offered many valuable 
suggestions in addition to a personal, visual 
documentation of the artists' work which 
would have been impossible to obtain 
under ordinary circumstances. We would 
also like to express our gratitude to Mrs. 
Kasha Linville for her editorial and 
bibliographic help, and to Carol Burns for 
her patience and skill in compiling the 
bibliography and typing endless pages of 
manuscript for the catalogue. 

Finally, we are most indebted to the artists 
whose cooperation and willingness to make 
works for this show made the exhibition 
possible. 

Marcia Tucker, Associate Curator 
James Monte, Associate Curator 



I 



Anti-Illusion : Procedures /Materials 
by James Monte 

The radical nature of many works in 
this exhibition depends less on the 
fact that new materials are being used 
by the artists than on the fact that the 
acts of conceiving and placing the 
pieces take precedence over the 
object quality of the works. It matters 
even less, for example, that Barry Le 
Va, Robert Morris, Rafael Ferrer or 
Michael Asher use such materials as 
felt, hay, ice, chalk, graphite, air or 
tissue; these materials have, after all, 
been used in the past by a significant 
minority of vanguard artists. The 
simple fact of their inclusion in art 
works is much less interesting than 
the way in which they are used. The 
notion that materials alone possess 
some shamanistic artistic properties, 
which, because of their new or exotic 
nature, can guarantee the quality of 
painting or sculpture has been con- 
sistently disproven by the offerings of 
many artists over the past few years. 
That fewer and fewer sculptors carve 
in granite, limestone, and marble and 
fewer painters use egg tempera in 
combination with oil glazes says 
nothing about the goodness or badness 
of those materials, but rather some- 
thing about the changing ideas ani- 
mating much of twentieth-century art. 
So one is reminded that changes in 
form and materials may result in truly 
interesting new works although not 
necessarily. 

The painters and sculptors in this 
exhibition do not share a common 
philosophy or aesthetic. None is part 
of an artistic commune. What they do 
share became clearer as Marcia Tucker 
and I came to closer grips with the 
specific problems of this exhibition. 






During its organization, we discovered 
that the normal curatorial procedures 
of seeing and then selecting or reject- 
ing works to be included could not be 
followed. After visiting numerous 
studios and galleries, as well as view- 
ing slides and photographs, we dis- 
covered that the bulk of the exhibition 
would be comprised of painting and 
sculpture which we had not seen and 
would not see until perhaps one week 
before the opening date of the show. 
That this method of putting together 
an exhibition is risky for the artist 
as well as the Museum goes without 
saying. The artist must rely on his act, 
outside his studio, in a strange en- 
vironment, within a short period of 
time, to carry the weight of his 
aesthetic position. In effect, what Tm 
saying is no more "Series". A picture 
in a series can look more or less good 
in a particular place, but it isn't 
crucial. Here the very nature of the 
piece may be determined by its loca- 
tion in a particular place in a partic- 
ular museum. The piece may turn out 
to be one that could be re-shown else- 
where, and it may not. 

For example, in the sculptures by 
William Bollinger, Barry Le Va, Robert 
Morris, Bruce Nauman, Richard Serra, 
Joel Shapiro, Keith Sonnier, Robert 
Rohm and the painting by Robert 
Ryman, each exists in either a de- 
objectified or scattered or dislocated 
state and in some instances the three 
conditions simultaneously. Another 
condition often found is the depend- 
ence on location, not merely as a site 
for the work, but as an integral, inex- 
tricable armature, necessary for the 
existence of the work. Robert Ryman's 
picture is painted on a standard, mov- 
able museum waU; the painting, one 
must conclude, exists for the duration 
of the exhibition. Richard Serra'slead 



Carl Andre 




r 



J 





Lynda Benglis 



I \ 







W^- 




I 






f 

















^! r 












sculpture is a displayed act as much as 
it is an exhibited sculpture. Serra 
brought material, lead, and a saw with 
which to manipulate the dense metal, 
and set about transforming a location 
as well as leaving a sculpture. The 
transformation of site and material 
are visual coefficients in Serra's work. 
Joel Shapiro's convoluted nylon tvdne 
is loosely woven and stapled to a wall. 
The resultant object exists as an art 
work until it is removed from the wall 
site. It then becomes an art corpse set 
to rest in a plastic bag in a corner of 
the artist's studio. Keith Sonnier's 
sculpture uses the wall as a ground and 
in some instances as a trompe I'oeil 
pictorial plane. His sculpture is usu- 
ally comprised of flocking material, 
impregnated cloth, and slender rope 
or cloth strands combined to form a 
low relief surface. The work alludes 
to a flatness, flatter than it actually is. 
A curiously muted reversal of illusion 
occurs in the following manner : a 
given section of flocking substance, 
overlaid by a hanging section of cloth 
or rope, appears to revert to a painted 
facsimile of itself rather than aggres- 
sively pushing toward the viewer as 
a bulging relief. An inverse trompe 
I'oeil action undermines the already 
evanescent character of the materials 
Sonnier chooses to use. 

Barry Le Va has said that he is not 
necessarily concerned with the specific 
language of certain materials, but 
more with the materials as the lan- 
guage of a specific idea or concept. His 
earlier pieces, made during 1966-67, 
reflected the working-out or appli- 
cation of material in the service of a 
predetermined idea about form. The 
newer works completed in 1968-69 
are conceptual as well, but with an 
additional emphasis, that of time. 







Rather than distributing and relating 
felt fragments in small or large ag- 
glomerates on a floor, Le Va uses com- 
binations of materials such as bulk 
chalk and mineral oil in conjunction 
with paper or cloth elements. The 
process which occurs when the mate- 
rials are mixed allows the work to 
change over a period of hours or days, 
depending on the degree of dryness or 
dampness, absorption or saturation, 
which depends in turn on the mix 
ratio of the materials. Le Va is able to 
use time as a substantial element in 
the recent pieces; he can project the 
sequential development of the work 
in a way analogous to that in which 
a biologist estimates the growth of 
micro-organisms developed in a 
laboratory. The analogy is perhaps 
apt in another way as well. The 
biologist confirms the growth rate of 
his culture by examining and record- 
ing its change. Among other tests to 
be made on the culture, its growth rate 
is presumably important to the scien- 
tist. It is important for Le Va as well; 
once he knows how various substances 
interact, he can then use the elements 
as they act with and on each other 
after he has, in a sense, given himself 
to them for a period of apprenticeship. 
He must empathize with their cycle 
as well as with their materiality, as 
the scientist must with his micro- 
organisms. Le Va views his discoveries 
objectively and, unlike the traditional 
painter or sculptor, has little interest 
in manipulating those materials in 
order to produce a series of works 
based on a single set of confluences. 
Le Va, like many of the other artists 
in this exhibition, willfully changes 
the circumstances in which he works 
the moment the possibility of extend- 
ing those circumstances ceases to 
exist. 

Carl Andre, Lynda Benglis, John Duff, 
Eva Hesse, Robert Lobe and Richard 
Tuttle continue to produce objects 
which might be termed discreet and in 
most cases recessive. Andre does, as 
Philip Leider pointed out, "make 
sculpture." But Leider adds, "Some- 



William Bollinger 




/ 



what like Dan Flavin, the order which 
Andre imposes on materials is not 
designed so much to create an object 
as to create a set of conditions which 
we experience as art " 

Therein lies the difficulty of talking 
about Andre's sculpture : sometimes 
it is firmly tied to sculptural tradition, 
no matter that it hugs the ground; at 
other moments it seems to be an 
environmental episode, some sort of 
architectural subversion that exhales 
an art quality while at the same 
moment criticizing the environment 
which cannot contain it in a conclu- 
sive manner. 

It is this inconclusive quality which 
Andre's sculpture shares with works 
as formally diverse as those by 
Benglis, Duff, Hesse, Jenney, Lobe 
and Tuttle. There exists in the sculp- 
ture made primarily of joined wood 
and wire by Lobe and Duff a suggested 
possibility of environmental exten- 
sion. One cannot disregard a reading 
of their pieces which includes an 
architectural ambition to build some 
form of habitation. Jarring if incon- 
clusive functional references are likely 
to occur in Neil Jenney's sprawling 
pieces. His environmental sets can be 
likened to a mixed metaphor which 
traps and bemuses the onlooker. 




10 



m 



/% 




^•^ 




John Duff 



What at first appeared to be an 
aesthetic of impoverishment, frozen 
between layers of latex or plastic in 
Eva Hesse's sculptures, is simply not 
that on continued viewing. Whether 
her works are diminutive and intended 
to be hand-held or made on a grand 
scale, her finest sculpture has a unique 
animus which is anthropomorphic in 
quality if not intent. Her work alludes 
to human characteristics such as the 
softness of skin, the swell of a muscle 
or the indeterminate color of flesh 
fading under clothing after exposure 
to a summer sun. 

The air sculpture by Michael Asher 
reveals a sensibility quite opposite to 
that possessed by Eva Hesse. Asher's 
sculpture is literally a curtain of air 
defining the height, wddth and depth 
of an entrance from one gallery to the 
adjacent gallery. The piece is a cubic 
volume of space, circumscribed by an 
activated air mass within the confines 
of that space. The space is acknowl- 
edged by the pressure felt when 
moving into or out of its confines. The 
disembodied literalism of the piece 
neatly alludes to a slab form without 
carpentry. Feeling and therefore 
knowing replaces the cycle of seeing 
and hence knowing the sculptural 
presence. 



i^*^' 






11 




Rafael Ferrer 



12 










i 



^ 


H^^^J 


^ 


SPPHRHIhh 


>^j|^Hp 


^■^'■M^M 




tki^-^W^ 




.^ 







The fact that so many artists were 
wilhng to risk challenging the terms 
within which they have operated in 
the past in so direct a manner became 
one of the primary reasons for holding 
the exhibition. Connoisseurship 
became a secondary issue— how can an 
artist make a sculpture or paint a 
picture without opportunity to reflect 
on its perfectability? Whether it is 
good or isn't depends entirely on see- 
ing it in place, which isn't possible 
in a museum. So the answer is that 
the artist cannot reflect on his work 
in the usual manner under the condi- 
tions I have described. And since 
serious artists care very much about 
what they can and cannot do, it 
became apparent that these artists 
cared about a set of ideas which 
included responses to materials, time 
and creative acts which absolved them 
from other more traditional responses 
to their work. 

One of the most conservative or 
traditional properties of modern art 
is its reliance on style. The signature 
of virtually every modern painter and 
sculptor has been his style, or series 
of styles. Style replaced illusion while 
at the same moment it gave the 
individual artist the area within which 
he could develop his art. Most of the 
artists in this exhibition have chosen 
to slip around style, (it's difficult to 
ignore or defeat ) , by concentrating 
on their individual acts. One could 
properly ask how an artist eludes style 
if one of his art acts follows another. 
One sure-fire method is by constantly 
changing materials or even media. 
Another is to conceive each work in 
terms of the freedoms and limitations 
of a particular time and place. Many 
of the artists in this exhibition do just 
that. It is, of course, absurd to deny 
that there are not internal links from 
one work to the next, no matter if one 
is "sculpture", the other "dance" and 
the next "film"; what I am proposing 
is that there exists a lack of interest 
in stylistic consistency. 

Since it can be argued with some 
effectiveness that artists are of neces- 
sity extremely practical people whose 



13 



adjustment to their living conditions 
is often audacious, the following re- 
marks are perhaps pertinent. Artists, 
particularly sculptors, are faced with 
enormous problems, such as procure- 
ment and storage of materials, storage 
of unsold works, transportation costs, 
not to mention the time and cost of 
completing large works. Those who 
teach are fortunate enough to have 
the use of student help and often the 
facilities of the university or art school 
where they teach. Most are not so 
fortunate and as a result much of their 
early work does not survive intact. 
Bitter as this may be, even more bitter 
are the crippling effects of not being 
able to produce on the development 
of these artists. The most obvious way 
to develop is by working through as 
many problems as ambition, time and 
money will allow. The effects of being 
able to work through a series of 
problems quickly, in full scale, was 
remarked on by Richard Serra who 
commented, ". . . so I was able to dis- 
card a lot of ideas while working 
through ten or twelve pieces in Europe 
and I also discovered what I wanted 
to do for a particular piece to be shown 
here. . . ." 

What I have attempted to show is the 
basically healthy attitude shared by 
the artists in this exhibition toward 
their working methods, materials and 
environment. Healthy not as in 
"mental health" but as descriptive of 
their relations to tradition; these 
artists have assimilated an array of 
complex formal and social problems 
within the art world and have offered 
solutions which are often startlingly 
original. 

One of the most interesting character- 
istics of post war American art is the 
speed with which it reveals itself. No 
matter what happens, it seems to 






For Philip Glass 

A length of sound that is not involved in beginning or ending. This refusal 
to remember what has or has not happened before, holds the attention, 
becomes the continuity itself, a focus. It is possible to present the piece with* 
one's own random inventory of interpretations or events. But not the other j 
way around. Our past, our future. The music doesn't take notice or present 
explanations of itself. The piece goes on. We are not joined in strategies of 
going anywhere together. Duration becomes a function of attention, a focus,\ 
a physical act, a catalyst towards contemplating the present. The drama car 
be one of transcendence. Our drama. Our transcendence. The piece goes on. 
We participate in length, in the mechanics of change, in our own distractioTisl 
which bring us toward or away from the line of notes. Emotions diminish or Ij 
increase and the piece goes on. The objective content is never relinquished. 
The rhythm of endurance becomes a presence, a meditation, a location. We 
are free to come and go, within our own time. As we wish. There are no 
commands, no directions, no theatrical gestures. The journey is already ove 
or it never happened. The notes refer only to themselves. The composer is 
not involved with pointing to himself or articulating his own emotions, his 
own psychology. The listener is free to deal with the experience directly. 
As he so chooses. While the piece goes on.— Rudolph Wurlitzer, 1969 



14 



[^^^^^^■k^ 




w^^^^^^^SSS^SS^^S} 






fS^I^SI 






ir::BH^. - -.^^^^^M 



oiJ ^tjj tr 



Pilir 



;^ 










|P3Pll33J^. 




ii»wrft&>«1b 



•^4. I^'"} 



happen fast. It's as if the furor 
poeticus of the Futurist Manifesto 
had become the guiding principle of 
all activity. One becomes acutely 
aware of time as an independent 
element as one becomes aware of 
human energy as an element in time. 
A revelation of art energy made visible 
in a short period of time seems to be 
the very basis upon which major post 
war American art rests. Illusion is a 
key factor in arresting or slowing the 
energy flow from the art object to the 
onlooker; the instant response, where- 
in the spectator must of necessity be 
arrested by the aesthetic experience 
for a moment, is given over to exam- 
ination and perhaps delectation. Most 
major post war American art rigor- 
ously denies that particular kind of 
delectation time to the viewer by treat- 
ing illusion in a very measured way. 
The viewer who is disappointed by a 
Jackson Pollock painted in 1947 or 
by a Kenneth Noland painted twenty 
years later is probably disappointed 
because he misunderstands the con- 
text within which he is forced to 
confront these works. The rigor with 
which these artists (and others) deny 
a viewing of their works outside the 
non-illusionistic limits they have 
prescribed leads directly to the anti- 
illusionist paintings and sculptures 
in the present exhibition. 

With the American abstract-expres- 
sionist artists providing an historical 
scrim at the back of a hypothetical 
stage, the figures of Marcel Duchamp, 
Jasper Johns, Robert Rauschenberg, 
Claes Oldenburg and finaUy Robert 




Eva Hesi 



16 




Morris fill out a kind of cast of influ- 
ences for many of the artists included 
in the exhibition. It is Robert Morris 
who provided a significant minority 
of the artists with intellectual stimu- 
lation, attention and help through 
his writing about their art, teaching, 
and organizing an exhibition of their 
works. It was Morris who established, 
in his writing, the links between 
Pollock's concern for the innate 
property of semi-viscous paint and the 
current close examination of the 
properties of various materials. 

The very tough logic underlying the 
best post war American abstract art 
combined with a kind of art systems 
analysis, brilliantly conceived by Claes 
Oldenburg, seems to account for at 
least a portion of the history behind 
these artists' works. Oldenburg's 
superior rationalism in dealing with 
sculptural form, his carrying over of 
form from one material to the next, 
his environmental concerns, all con- 
tributed to a kind of climate of open 
possibilities. 

It becomes apparent as one walks 
through the exhibition that each of the 
artists presumes very little about the 
procedures or materials with which 
he makes his art. Nor is there pre- 
sumption about where and how the 
objects should be seen. In many cases, 
the artists control the very life-span 
of their individual works. Factors such 
as material disintegration or physical 
change are integrally contained 
within a number of the objects. Taken 
singly or in combination, the pro- 
cedural factors alone seriously call 
into question how art should be seen, 
what should be done with it and 
finally, what is an art experience. 



17 










18 



^ 


^ 






10 


't 


1 


mm 


^^^H 


B 


1^.-^ 


z 


■ '^^ 


R^l^^^^l 


H^^ 


^ 


1 


wk 




1 









Neil Jenney 



19 






20 




is?fe 






"jj^jr^WW^^^^ 



I 




Barry LeVa 



21 





(^ 



Robert Lobe 



22 




/ 





23 



Anti-Illusion : Procedures /Materials 
by Marcia Tucker 



There must, it seems to me, be soi 
hum.an activity which serves to hi 
tip orientations, to weaken and fr. 
trate the tyrannous drive to order 
prepare the individual to observe ■ 
the orientation tells him is irrelevi 
but what may very well he relevar 
That activity, I believe, is the activ 
artistic perception.— Morse Peckh; 
Man's Rage for Chaos. 



31 

^ 




3ur approach to works of art has been 
Dased on certain assumptions about 
he nature of art. One of these assump- 
ions has been that art creates order 
rom the chaos of experience; it is 
Dresumed that our understanding of 
I work of art is equivalent to our grasp 
)f the formal or conceptual order 
inherent in it. 

The present exhibition challenges this 
iupposition. We are offered an art 
hat presents itself as disordered, 



chaotic, or anarchic. Such an art 
deprives us of the fulfillment of our 
aesthetic expectations and offers, 
instead, an experience which cannot 
be anticipated nor immediately under- 
stood. By negating prior orientations, 
our personal aesthetic values are also 
challenged. If, then, no preconceived 
order reveals itself to our scrutiny, we 
must ask if there are other ways in 
which a work of art can be meaningful. 

It has been assumed until recently 
that sculpture is, by its very nature, 



three-dimensional , self-contained , 
and fashioned from relatively durable 
materials, such as stone, metals, 
plastics or wood. The methods tradi- 
tionally employed in the making of 
sculpture have been those of welding, 
carving, molding or joining, and the 
resultant works have focused on a 
harmonious balance of parts to the 
whole. Certain pieces in the exhibition 
appear disordered and unharmonious. 




Robert Morris 






VpfM* 





.:.vS*;-;y 




This does not mean that the elements 
employed have no relationship to each 
other but rather that such relation- 
ships are of a new kind. They do not 
evolve from a preconception of order 
which the artist is trying to express, 
but from the activity of making a work 
and from the dictates of the materials 
used. A relational logic has been re- 
placed by a functional one. By divorc- 
ing art from an established value 
system in which order is inherent, 



new concerns with time, gesture, ma- 
terials and attitudes take precedence. 

Painting, which has been dependent 
on illusion, whether optical or repre- 
sentational, has been even more 
rigorously subject to specific criteria. 
According to Clement Greenberg, 
"authentic" painting is determined by 
the extent to which a picture upholds 
the integrity of the picture plane, 
stresses the surface upon which it is 
painted, adheres to the rectilinear 
shape of the canvas and makes its two- 
dimensionality explicit. Greenberg's 
definition of painting is, then, an 



empirical reductive analysis based on 
the physical properties of a painting. 
This reduction of a painting to its 
physical properties (frame, canvas 
and paint) is challenged by certain 
artists who have denied the material 
and analytical basis of this judgment, 
not by ideology, but by materiality 
itself. Such paintings do not lend 
themselves to this kind of physical 
analysis of the object, but to a gestural 
analysis of the art activity per se. 

Lynda Benglis' paintings are poured 
onto the floor, with no boundaries or 



i. 




Bruce Nauman 



27 



format other than that estabUshed by 
the colored Uquid rubber she uses— 
they are neither stretched nor hung. 
Her primary interest in color relation- 
ships is expressed in terms of the 
process of pouring, eliminating any 
a priori theoretic framework. 

Robert Ryman purifies painting to a 
further extreme by eliminating color 
as a formal element and concentrat- 
ing on the act of putting paint on a 
surface. He uses white paint only, 



allowing the application of pigment 
to become the subject of the work. 
Each brushstroke affords a raw, 
immediate and spontaneous gesture 
whose intimations have nothing to do 
with narrative nor formal configura- 
tion. Moreover, he uses plain or cor- 
rugated paper, rejecting even the use 
of stretched canvas as a pictorial 
convention. 

Even the least stringent definition 
would indicate that to qualify as a 
painting, a surface must at the very 



least be painted. Tuttle's Octagons 
( 1968) are dyed. Unstretched, cut 
canvas shapes are hung on the wall 
or placed on the floor, their wrinkled 
surfaces unequivocally denying 
illusion. 

If all traces of representation or 
illusion are eliminated from painting 
it would seem that formal relation- 
ships of line, color and shape would 
remain crucial. However, these works I 
suggest that if analytical relation- 




Pendulum. Music 

For microphones, amplifiers, speakers and performers 

2, 3, 4 or more microphones are suspended from the 
ceiling by their cables so that they all hang the same 
distance from the floor and are all free to swing with a 
pendular motion. Each microphone's cable is plugged 
into an amplifier which is connected to a speaker. Each 
microphone hangs a few inches directly above or next 
to its speaker. 

The performance begins with performers taking each 
mike, pulling it back like a swing, and then in unison 
releasing all of them together. Performers then carefully 



turn up each amplifier just to the point where feedback 
occurs when a mike swings directly over or next to its 
speaker. Thus, a series of feedback pulses are heard which 
will either be all in unison or not, depending on the 
gradually changing phase relations of the different mike 
pendulums. 

Performers then sit down to watch and listen to the 
process along with the audience. 

The piece is ended some time after all mikes have come 
to rest and are feeding back a continuous tone by per- 
formers pulling out the power cords of the amplifiers. 

-Steve Reich 8/ 68 



fc 



f 



PIANO PHASE 



PlftKO I 



riKH» E 










Both pianists start in unison, as shoiun at 1 . The second pianist 
increases his tempo very slightly and begins to move ahead of the 
first until (say in 30 to 60 seconds) he is one sixteenth note ahead, 
as shown at 2. The dotted lines indicate this gradual movement of 
the second pianist and the consequent shift of phase relation 
between himself and the first pianist. This process is continued, 
with the second pianist gradually becoming an eighth (3), a dotted 
eighth (4), a quarter (5), etc., ahead of the first, until he finally 
comes back into unison at 1 again. The entire process may be 
repeated as many times as desired. 

Either pianist may have the stable or moving role and these 
may be reversed if the process is played through more than once. 
A performer m.ay find it easier to gradually decrease his tempo 
and bring about the change of phase that way. In any case, a 
gradual movement should be attempted— the slower the better. 
The tendency to move directly from one 'rational' relationship of 
a sixteenth note difference (eg., all the numbered bars above) into 
the next, should be resisted and performers should attempt to 
move smoothly and continuously, spending due time in the dotted 
lines or 'irrational' relationships. 

This is a work in progress. —Steve Reich 12/66 



29 



ships, as well as any dependence upon 
a geometric support, are eliminated, 
it is stUl possible to make a painting. 



If a work of art offers us various 
components, arranged and assembled 
into a coherent whole, there is the 
assumption that such order is mean- 
ingful, either in terms of the work 
itself or in terms of our experience of 




the world. Much of the work in this 
exhibition denies this premise and 
disorients us by making chaos its 
structure. The pieces shown cannot, 
therefore, be precisely understood in 
terms of our previous experience of 
"art". They are not attempts to use 
new materials to express old ideas or 
evoke old emotional associations, but 
to express a new content that is totally 
integrated with material. 




■-^ 



i 



Eva Hesse, for example, has found 
that because she is concerned with 
creating personal forms, she must use 
only materials that she can make 
herself. The plastic, fiberglass, rub- 
berized cheesecloth and gauze from 
which her pieces are modelled are 
neither cast nor molded. They are 
made by putting the raw material on 
the floor and shaping it, adding layers 



- 






Robert Rohm 



30 



J 



** - * 







until the proper substance is attained. 
The result of using only colors and 
shapes intrinsic to the materials is 
that the work has both a strong 
presence and a provocative, other- 
w^orldly quality. Her pieces are draped, 
hung, extended or propped, but look 
unlike anything "real". 

Keith Sonnier's flock and neon pieces 
also depend upon a new idea of 



materiality that has little to do with 
the substance of past sculptural 
forms. To a similar end, Robert 
Morris, Barry Le Va and Alan Saret 
have used scale and figure-ground 
relationships which are imprecise and 
alterable. Neil Jenney employs tin foil, 
plaster, peanuts and fungus in his 
work, subverting traditional ideas of 




volume and substantiality in sculp-l 
ture. His work not only appears 
fragile, but can actually rot away. 

Some of the earliest pieces to exhlb:' 
this involvement with materials we 
Claes Oldenburg's giant soft struc- 
tures, but they always refer directly 
to real objects. The artists in this 
exhibition express a similar interes 
in materials, but disregard any obvif 
links with actual things. 



i 

Isl 



Robert Ryman 



lere is, in the exhibition, no illusion- 
jiTi that is relevant to the past tradi- 



eslt >n-symbolic, non-ordered approach, 
im \e which does not depend upon a 

nceptual framework to be under- 
irecjfcod. The work is realistic in the 

Qest sense, because it does not rely 
nieifi i descriptive, poetic or psychological 
iio? iferents. The approach is phenomen- 

jgical in nature, dealing with the 



m of art. We are presented with a 



appearances and gestural modes by 
means of which physical things are 
presented to our consciousness. 



Still another possible function of this 
kind of art is, as Robbe-Grillet has 
indicated, "not to illustrate a truth— 
or even an interrogation— known in 
advance, but to bring into the world 
certain interrogations (and also, 
perhaps, in time, certain answers) 
not yet known as such to themselves." 
(Notes for a New Novel, 1965.) The 



work is, therefore, open-ended and 
difficult to discuss without the frame- 
work of an historical perspective. It 
is possible, however, to discuss the 
works individually by speaking of 
them in terms of intention, which 
differs for each artist. 

Here, the intention which prompts 
the artistic endeavor is one of explo- 
ration, an attempt to discover and to 
make something which has not been 
made before. For some artists, like 



Jenney and Duff, expressive intent 
remains crucial; for others, like Serra 
or Andre, such romantic factors are 
deliberately eliminated. 

If the nature of the artistic endeavor 
is a questioning one, then the artists' 
methods will accord with the en- 
deavor. Richard Serra continually 
asks questions about his own work: 
what is it? how does it look? what 



does it mean? how is it used? Serr 
mode of sculpture is active, that is" 
he is involved with the physical pr 
erties of things, and the traces tha 
result from a manipulation of the 
materials. Serra is concerned with 
various activities and processes- 
propping, bending, leaning, rollinjjfcl 
sawing, splattering. He avoids illul 
sion, representation and especially 
construction in order to concentra 



* 




Alan Saret (Work not included in the exhibition) 



34 



iii 



*i 1 what is being done. Since the em- 
*i lasis is on the activity, the piece 
■^i lUst be analyzed in terms of the kind 
work that has gone into its making. 

;rra avoids permanently joining 
^ lything; thus, his lead pieces deal 

ith a functional rather than formal 
''^ ilationship of parts. His concern with 
^i hat he calls "arrested moments", 
^ lat is, fixing a piece at its point of 
em 



maximum potential change, incorpo- 
rates an element of actual time into a 
sculptural mode. 

Music, film, theater and dance have 
been considered separate from the 
plastic arts because they involve time 
as well as space. They are therefore 
impermanent, temporal manifes- 
tations whose duration is dependent 
upon the artist rather than the ob- 
server. However, the plastic arts have 
begun to share with the performing 



arts the mobile relational character 
of single notes to series, individuated 
actions to the fabric of a narrative 
sequence, or single steps to a total 
configuration of movement. 

It has been thought that music creates 
its own suspended temporality, de- 
pendent upon the elements of rhythm 
and silence. Musical time has thus 
been considered different from "real" 
time. For Philip Glass and Steve 




35 



Reich, actual time is a crucial factor 
in their music; it offers no illusion of 
temporality other than that which 
exists in the performance of their 
pieces. They have no beginning, 
middle or end— only the sense of an 
isolated present. This constant present 
exists because of a deliberate and 
unrelenting use of repetition which 
destroys the illusion of musical time 



and focuses attention instead on the 
material of the sounds and on their 
performance. Both composers are 
personally involved in the temporal 
evolution of their work since they 
play their own music, accompanied by 
a limited number of other musicians. 

Carl Andre, in a recent symposium 
(March, 1969), discussed the ques- 
tion of time in his sculpture : 
Nothing is timeless, but it's an idea 
that haunts us . . . something that 



exists in my oivn work, hi one way, 
all we knoiv is now . . . The ivork must 
he experienced in terms of its material 
presence. 

The tense of memory is the present, 
and the tense of prophesy is now. Time 
is an illusion. The now is inescapable. 

Andre has also used repetition to 
create an isolated present in his sculp- 
ture. He uses uniform parts which 
are placed in identical relationships to 




36 




Richard Serra 





each other, without welding, joining 
or construction of any kind (except 
for an occasional use of magnets). 
These parts, or "sections", become the 
units in the creation of scale. Scale 
then becomes the focus of the piece; 
it acquires temporality because it 
cannot be visually or physically en- 
compassed by the viewer in a single 
glance or motion. 

In Bruce Nauman's extended-time 
pieces, the repetition of an isolated 



physical gesture— bouncing from a 
corner, walking through a wallboard 
channel, bouncing a ball— is problem- 
atic; that is, it questions the nature of 
time itself. 

In a recent exhibition, Robert Morris 
altered a piece daily, allowing the 
materials to dictate the addition and 
subtraction of elements in the piece. 
Rafael Ferrer has made anonymous, 
but highly personal gestures that are 
dependent upon split-second timing 
for their impact; several tons of leaves 



appeared suddenly in locations 
(stairs, elevators, etc. ) around the 
city, totally altering an environment 
from one minute to the next. No 
fastening, arranging nor ordering 
of any sort was involved. 

For many of these artists, the impli- 
cations of time indicate a new attitude 
toward the creation of non-precious 
objects. Some works come into being 
at the moment of their execution in a 
specific location and cease to exist 





37 



when they are removed from that 
environment. The relationship of 
work to location becomes one in which 
the artist also dictates the temporal 
duration of the piece. 

Michael Snow makes films, for ex- 
ample, in which actual duration 
eliminates the illusion of a duration 
created by narrative exposition. The 
films are simple and direct; he is 



sparing in his use of technical mani i J'^ 
ulations to further an illusion and 
concentrates instead on a single foci 
a single note, a single action (such i 
that of the zoom in Wavelength, 
1967). A mysterious, subjective qua 
ity results from the intensity of pre- ^ 
senting what is seen. "I'm interested mat 
he says, "in doing something that , ,ii 
can't be explained." 

Robert Fiore's documentary footage 
is equally non-illusionistic. With a 





^ rtntmum of editing or montage, he 
cacentrates instead upon making 
tl' process of shooting become the 
sliucture of the film. Film time thus 
boomes the actual time involved in 
th recording of the action. 

Te use of time in each case becomes 
pradoxically disorienting. In the 
p Stic and performing arts, we are 
u ?d to an artificial time that enter- 

.ti,iis us, since it suspends reality. 

. Te force of real time, when pre- 



sented in the context of a work of art, 
is bewildering and even annoying. 
Ironically, we are asked to re-orient 
ourselves to what we already know. 



Robert Morris, in his remarks on "Anti 
Form" (Artforiim, April 1968), stated 
that "disengagement with precon- 
ceived enduring forms and orders for 
things is a positive assertion. It is 
part of the work's refusal to continue 
estheticizing form by dealing with it 
as a prescribed end." This assertion 
is, at the very least, disarming when 




translated into physical terms by the 
work itself. 

Most materials used are common- 
place and do not have the durability 
nor inherent value of materials 
usually associated with sculpture. 
String, hay, rubber, lead, cloth or dirt 
give the objects an unpretentious, 
active quality, whose focus is often on 
a relationship to the surrounding 
space rather than to the objects them- 



Joel Shapiro 





the 

FO! 



tr 
ac: 

tioi 
he) 



Michael Snow 



40 



selves. The choice of material is 
allowed to dictate the final form of 
the object. 

For Alan Saret, the scattering, hang- 
ing, piling or bunching of material 
becomes an expressive gesture. The 
"triumph of mind over matter" is not 
a crucial issue since the observer is 
no longer awed at a mystery of crea- 
tion which is foreign to him; rather, 
he is drawn into the very process of 
the work being made. In Saret's pieces. 



gesture is communicative and remains 
succinct even in the final product. 

A young West Coast sculptor, Michael 
Asher, uses material which deliber- 
ately subverts sculptural definitions. 
Just as "painting" appeared to be a 
necessary condition of painting, 
visibility would seem to be a necessary 
condition of sculpture. Asher's pieces 
are non-visible; they are made of 
columns of air. The forms are per- 
ceivable by means of physical par- 
ticipation only. 



If aesthetic priority is given to neither 
form nor object, the results are even 
more disruptive. In Neil Jenney's 
"environments", all elements are 
either totally unaesthetic or in a con- 
stant process of change. All elements 
are so commonplace that their juxta- 
position prompts a radical disorien- 
tation. Jenney does not alter these 
objects, but, unlike the Dadaists, he 
has little interest in making an aes- 
thetic experience of them. Instead, 





they promote a physical experience 
which is not dependent upon artifice. 
Some of his pieces, however, are so 
materially insubstantial that they 
even question the nature of that 
physical experience. 

Joel Shapiro makes things that have 
no independent existence apart from 
the wall to which they are stapled. 
Dyed nylon mono-filament is fixed in 
an enormous, dark rectangle to elimi- 
nate references to real objects. He is 
interested in physical decision -making 



processes that have no functional 
necessity; he does not try to make his 
work accord with a prior conception 
of what it should look like. 

In some instances, the nature of the 
material selected by the artist makes 
the analytical categories of painting 
and sculpture irrelevant. Bollinger's 
graphite pieces, sprayed on the wall or 
sprinkled on the floor (Bykert Gallery, 
January 1969) are neither painting 



41 





^ 




nor sculpture— or they are both. Robert 
Rohm's string sculpture has its origins 
in the minimal aluminum extrusions 
with which he has been working 
simultaneously, but by hanging string 
and rope grids and collapsing portions 
of them, his pieces challenge their 
own geometry. They can be read as 
three-dimensional "drawings" or two- 
dimensional, hanging "sculptures". 

From 1966 to 1968, Barry Le Va's 
"distributions" combined felt and 
ball-bearings which he scattered on 
the floor. The floor became a ground 
upon which particles of potential 
change, flow and mobility were de- 
ployed. Fluid elements, such as sand 
and oil, have been added in his recent 



work, making the figure-ground i 
lationships usually found in pain 
relevant for sculpture as well. Be 
of the enormous scale of the wort 
and their indeterminate format, tfichare 
require the spatial participation c 
the viewer in a similar way to Ancfci 
pieces. Thus, they make certain pi jistrai 
cal demands which we have com( lon-iitf 
associate with sculpture. 

A different kind of physical concei 
can be seen in the work of Robert ' 
and John Duff, who are interestec 
the act of assembling. Lobe's visu 
system is direct and non-concepti 
"You can't make art", he says, "ou 
other people's literature." His stru" '^n 
tures, made of mats (which serve 
locate each piece ) , wood, springs 



lerevei 
115s iin 
ilionsi: 



alis 

Were: 
itainwo 



"''-^^ 



^•^^ 



"^*^< >^ ■ lM Mi» i % W | ! W| j« *''W * '* * 




m 



indi pe reveal ways of making co: timon 
pju; ings uncommon. Their inter lal 
1 Bf lationsips are mobile and noi i- 
ivoil actical. Duff makes poetic ol jects 
nat.i lich are symmetrical and bal meed. 
ley consist of man-made materials 
vindow-screen, fiberglass rop ; and 
jinj Jod strapping— yet draw atten ion 
iiD non-literal, indefinable gestu es. 
though every physical procesi and 
iterial is presented in a matte '-of- 
, jl ;t way, a complex, mysterious iy 
n-referential image results. 



^ '* rtain works in the exhibition, then, 
^'-^^ ! about time, distribution, pro ;ess 
1 materials. It is also possible,] 




^"^•PBIF 









.».- .- 




.# 



m 





Keith Sonnier 



43 



within these means, to express a qual- 
ity of existence or an attitude toward 
one's experience of the world. 

Eva Hesse, as early as 1965, created 
chaos in her pieces from the premise 
of a perfect system. More recently, in 
her fiberglass buckets, rubber wrap- 
pings and translucent curtains, she 
has been concerned with "making 
something which is nothing, yet 
becomes something". This kind of 



existential decision eliminates work 
which has organic or associative 
referents. Her pieces are complex 
objects which connect to our lives, yet 
have no meaning outside themselves. 

Bruce Nauman's Performance Area, 
while not a "sculpture", is not a found 
object either. Rather, it is entirely 
specific, forcing the observer to accept 
the work the way it is given. Its use is 
also specific, unlike a found object, 
since anyone who enters the work be- 



comes a performer. No interpretation 
is available; therefore, no ambiguity 
occurs. A one-hour videotape of 
Nauman walking back and forth in 
this wall-board channel (a separate 
work, not shown in the exhibition) 
indicates his attitude toward his own 
experience of the world. His pieces 
are about himself without being auto- 
biographical, highly personal without 




being psychological, perverse vdthout 
being sadistic. 

Keith Sonnier's configurations are 
more formal than Nauman's, but also 
have an element of aesthetic eroti- 
cism. As a sculptor, his interest in 
linear drawing and surface incident 
are expressed with materials that 
avoid a "high-art" content. The flock 
and neon wall pieces are suggestive 
because they are sensually appealing 
and contain an active, painterly 



spatial fluctuation. When working 
with neon, the results are non -iconic; 
by wrapping one light source ( a bulb ) 
with another (neon tubing), each 
plays against and transforms the 
other without direct manipulation 
of the lights themselves. 



For some artists in this exhibition, 
meaning results from the activity of 
making the work; for others, meaning 
resides in the configuration dictated 
by the choice of materials; for stUl 



others, meaning can be found in an 
expressed intention. In all cases, 
meaning and material cannot be 
separated. 

When our aesthetic norms are chal- 
lenged, the factor of negation may 
appear more obvious to us at first 
than the significance of the challenge, 
In time, the most severely criticized 
characteristics of these new works 
may ultimately prove to be their 
strength. 



h 



Kichard' 



.'^ 




-?«-*» 



Richard Tuttle 



45 




-s-v; 





46 






r 



T'-i-^ 




y^i 



m 



*{•>' 



^ 




o 



*'.'/ 






-Ai.-' 



M n- 



1 



IbW. 's^ 



1.^ -ST 



■il;K 






:ilfc. 



// 




.// 



I?«i 



i!K? 



^T* 



^ I J 





"IWSg 




nH 




i 


<i 


.i^ 




^' / 


.<' 


s*^ ' ^ 


^■ 




<5 








J«^-^^ 





<y-3|t • 



.-^f 




'\J"-^^ 





<r ''T 




T3 



Pi 






C^ 



47 




1^-J 



/ 





/ 



LO r> ^0 




/ 




^' 




/' 



/ ' 



' 




' 



fv 




/ 



i 






T^i 




50 





51 



Carl Andre 

Born Quincy, Massachusetts, 1935. 
Studied with Patrick Morgan, 1953; 
with Frank Stella, 1958. Worked on 
Pennsylvania Railroad, 1960-64. 
Lives in New York. 

One-man exhibitions : 

1965 Tibor de Nagy Gallery, 
New York. 

1966 Tibor de Nagy Gallery, 
New York. 

1967 Dwan Gallery, Los Angeles. 
1967 Dwan Gallery, New York. 

1967 Konrad Fischer Gallery, 
Dusseldorf. 

1968 Miinchener Gobel Manufactur, 
Munich. 

1968 Galerie Heiner Friedrich, 
Munich. 

1968 Wide White Space Gallery, 
Antwerp. 

1969 Gemeentemuseum, den Haag. 
1969 Dwan Gallery, New York. 

Group exhibitions : 

1964 Hudson River Museum and 
Bennington College. 

1965 Tibor de Nagy Gallery, New 
York, "Shape and Structure." 

1966 Jewish Museum, New York, 
"Primary Structures." 

1966 Dwan Gallery, New York, "10." 

1967 Dwan Gallery, Los Angeles, "10." 

1966 Institute of Contemporary Art, 
Boston, "Multiplicity." 

1967 Institute of Contemporary Art, 
University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, "Aromatic 
Minimalism." 

1967 Ithaca College Museum of Art, 
Ithaca, "Drawings 1967." 

1967 Museum of Contemporary 

Crafts, New York, "Monuments, 
Tombstones, and Trophies." 

1967 Dwan Gallery, New York, "Scale 
Models and Drawings." 

1967 Los Angeles County Museum of 
Art, Los Angeles, "American 
Sculpture of the Sixties," 
( travelling exhibition ) . 

1967 Dwan Gallery, New York, 
"Language to be Looked At 
And/Or Things to be Read." 

1968 New York University, Loeb 
Student Center, New York, "Art 
in Editions: New Approaches." 

1968 Laura Knott Gallery, Bradford 
Junior College. 



1968 Dwan Gallery, New York, 

"Language 11." 
1968 Dusseldorf, "Prospect '68." 
1968 Kassel,"4.documenta." 
1968 Gemeentemuseum, Den Haag, 

"Minimal Art." 
1968-69 The Museum of Modern Art, 

New York, "Art of the Real : 

USA 1948-1968," (travelling 

exhibition). 

1968 Dwan Gallery, New York, 
"Earthworks." 

1968-69 Munich, "Karl Stroher 
Collection," (travelling 
exhibition). 

1969 Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 
"OpLosse Schroeven," ("Square 
Pegs in Round Holes"). 

1969 Kunsthalle, Bern, "When 
Attitudes Become Form." 

1969 Kunsthalle, Dusseldorf, 
"Minimal Art," (travelling 
exhibition ) . 

Collections : 

Larry Aldrich Museum, Ridgefield, 

Connecticut. 
Mrs. Vera List, New York. 
Poses Art Institute, Brandeis 

University, Waltham, Mass. 
Maud Morgan, Cambridge, 

Massachusetts. 
Mr. John Powers, New York and 

Aspen, Colorado. 
Mr. and Mrs. Frits Becht, Hilversum, 

Holland. 
Mr. and Mrs. Melvin Hirsh, Beverly 

Hills, California. 
The Museum of Modern Art, New 

York. 
Irving Blum, Los Angeles. 
Manny Greer, New York. 
Patrick Lannan, Palm Beach, Florida. 
Heiner Friedrich, Munich. 
Museum of Contemporary Art, 

Chicago. 
Mr. Karl Stroher, Dormstadt, 

Germany. 
Mr. Hans Dahlem, Dormstadt, 

Germany. 
Mr. Jan van der Mark, Chicago. 
Mr. Karl Stroher, Dormstadt, 

Germany. 
Mr. Karl Heinimann, Miinchen 

Gladbach, Germany. 
Mr. Karl Gerstner, Dusseldorf. 
Mr. Benno Premsala, Amsterdam. 



Mr. Isi Fisezman, Antwerp. 
Haus Lange Museum, Krefeld, 

Germany. 
Mr. Kasper Konig, Cologne. 
Dr. Peter Ludwig, Aachen, Germany. 

Bibliography : 

Raynor, Vivien. "In the Galleries: Exit 

Hofmann Left, Enter Albers Right," 

Arts, Vol. 39, No. 5, February 1965, 

p. 54. 
Berrigan, Ted. "Reviews and Previews s 

Carl Andre," Art News, Vol. 64, 

No. 4, Summer 1965, p. 21. 
Lippard, Lucy R. "New York Letter: 

April-June 1965," Art International 

Vol. 9, No. 6, September 20, 1965, 

pp. 58-59. 
Grossberg, Jacob. "In the Galleries : 

Carl Andre," Arts, Vol. 39, No. 10, 

September-October 1965, p. 72. 
Bourdon, David. "The Razed Sites of 

Carl Andre," Vol. 5, No. 2, October, 

1966, pp. 15-17. 
Graham, Dan. "Carl Andre," Arts, Vol. 

66, No. 9, January 1968, pp. 34-35. 
Gilardi, Piero. Flash Art, Roma, 15 

January/ 15 February 1968, p. 2. 
Mellow, James R. "New York Letter," 

Art International, Vol. 12, No. 2, 

February 1968, pp. 73-74. 
Claura, Michel. "Andre," Lettres 

francaises (Paris), October 1968. 
Miiller, Gregoire. "In the Parisian 

Desert," Arts, Vol. 43, No. 3, 

December /January 1969, p. 52. 

By the artist: 

"Frank Stella," Sixteen Americans. 
New York, 1959, p. 76. 



Will 



Michael Asher 

Born Los Angeles, California, 1943. 
Lives in Venice, California. 

Group exhibitions : 

1968 University of California at San 

Diego Art Gallery, San Diego, 

"New Work / Southern 

California." 
1968 Portland Art Museum, Portland, 

Oregon, "West Coast Now." 

Lynda Benglis 

Born Lake Charles, Louisiana, 1941. 
Studied Yale Norfolk Summer School 
of Music and Art, 1963; B.F. A. 
Newcomb College, New Orleans, 
1964. Lives in New York. 



Prei 



ffasse 
Yorl 
Feb] 

Picard 
Das 
Ma 
iro,( 
Seer 
Jani 

Brunei 
Will 
67,f 

John: 

JornL; 
Studiec 
B.F,A.l 



Group exhibition : 

1969 Bykert Gallery, New York. 



52 



1 



and 



William Bollinger 

Born Brooklyn, New York, 1939. 
Studied Brown University, Providence, 
Rhode Island, 1957-1961. Lives in 
New York. 

One-man exhibitions : 

1966 Bianchini Gallery, New York. 

1967 Bykert Gallery, New York. 

1968 Galerie Ricke, Cologne. 

1969 Bykert Gallery, New York. 

Group exhibitions : 

1966 Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas 
City, Missouri, "Sound, Light, 
Silence : Art that Performs." 

1966 Bykert Gallery, New York, 
( three-man show ) . 

1967 American Federation of Arts, 
New York, "Rejectivist Art." 

1968 Aldrich Museum of 
Contemporary Art, Ridgefield, 
Connecticut, "Cool Art." 

1968 Bykert Gallery, New York. 
1968 Leo Castelli Warehouse, New 

York, "9 at Leo Castelli." 
1968 Carmen Lamanna Gallery, 

Toronto, "New York Now." 

1968 Kunstmarkt, Cologne. 

1969 Kunsthalle, Bern, "When 
Attitudes Become Form." 

1969 Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 
"Op Losse Schroeven," ("Square 
Pegs in Round Holes"). 

1969 Galerie Ricke, Cologne, 
"6 Kiinstler." 

Bibliography : 

Waldman, Diane. "Reviews and 

Previews : William Bollinger," Art 

News, Vol. 65, No. 8, December 

1966, pp. 8-9. 
Wasserman, Emily. "Reviews: New 

York," Artforuni, Vol. 6, No. 6, 

February 1968, p. 55. 
Picard, Lil. "Brief aus New York," 

Das Kunstwerk, Vol. 5-6, February- 
March, 1968, p. 6. 
Baro, G. "American Sculpture : A New 

Scene," Studio International, 

January 1968, p. 15. 
Brunelle, Al. "Reviews and Previews : 

William Bollinger," Art News, Vol. 

67, No. 9, January 1969, p. 17. 

John Duff 

Born Lafayette, Indiana, 1943. 
Studied San Francisco Institute : 
B.F.A. Lives in New York. 



One-man exhibition : 

1967 Brady Gallery, San Francisco. 

Group exhibition : 

1963 Albatross Gallery, Newport 
Beach, California, (two-man). 

Rafael Ferrer 

Born San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1933. 
Studied at University of Syracuse, 
University of Puerto Rico. Played 
drums, 1951-1966. Lives in 
Philadelphia. 

One-man exhibitions : 

1968 29 West 57 Street, New York, 
December 4, (elevator piece) 
leaves. 

1968 4 East 77 Street, New York, 
December 4, (two bags, 14 
bushels) leaves. 

1968 103 West 108 Street, New York, 
December 4, (staircase piece, 
three landings, 36 bushels) 
leaves. 

1969 Philadelphia College of Art, 
February 7, (hay and ice piece 
#1). 

1969 Cheltenham, Philadelphia, 

February 9, (21 bales of straw). 

Group exhibitions : 

1964 University of Puerto Rico 
Museum, Mayaguez. 

1966 Pan American Union, 
Washington, D.C. 

1967 Peale Galleries, Pennsylvania 
Academy of Art, Philadelphia, 
"Art of Latin America." 

1967 Martha Jackson Gallery, New 
York, "Young Artists— Their 
Work," (travelling exhibition). 

1968 C.A.A.M., University of Puerto 
Rico, Mayaguez. 

1968 Eastern Connecticut State 
College, Willimantic. 

1969 C.A.A.M., University of Puerto 
Rico, Mayaguez, "FRARMR- 
ROREEROFIBSEATERLR," 
(Robert Morris, Rafael Ferrer). 

1969 Kunsthalle, Bern, "When 
Attitudes Become Form." 

1969 Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 
"Op Losse Schroeven," ("Square 
Pegs in Round Holes"). 

Collections : 

Ponce Museum of Art. 

University of Puerto Rico Museum. 

C.A.A.M., Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. 

Pan American Union, Washington, 

D.C. 
Institute of Puerto Rican Culture. 
Lester Avnet Collection. 



Robert Fiore 

Born Plymouth, New Hampshire, 
1942. Studied Yale University, New 
Haven, Connecticut, 1964: B.A.; 
Fulbright-Hays Grant, Paris, 1964- 
1965; School of the Arts, New York 
University, New York, 1968: M.F.A. 
Lives in New York. 

In film, the object is its essence. 

Filmmaker : 

1966 "Now Do You See How We Play?" 
1969 "Dionysius in '69" (with Brian 

de Palma , Bruce Rubin ) . 

Cameraman : 

1967 "Exposure." 

1968 "Bethel." 

1968 "Bridge This Gap." 
1968 "Jeremy." 
1968 "Greetings." 

1967 Assistant to Shirley Clarke, 
"Portrait of Jason." 

Philip Glass 

Born Baltimore, Maryland, 1937. 
Studied Peabody Conservatory of 
Music, 1947-1952; University of 
Chicago. 1952-1956: B.A.; Juilhard 
School of Music, 1957-1962: M.S. 
Scholarship : Juilliard School of 
Music, 1960-1961 ; Ford Foundation : 
Contemporary Music Project, 1962- 
1963, renewed, 1963-1964; Fulbright 
Scholarship for study in France, 
1964-1965. Lives in New York. 

Recent concerts : 

1968 Queens College, Queens, New 
York, "An Afternoon of Live and 
Electronic Music by Philip Glass 
and Steve Reich." 

1968 New School for Social Research, 
New York, "Tone-Roads." 

1968 Filmmakers Cinematheque, 
"New Music : Philip Glass." 

1969 Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. 
1969 Galerie Ricke, Cologne. 

1969 Kunsthalle, Bern. 

1969 New School for Social Research, 

New York, "An Evening of Live/ 

Electronic Music." 

E!va Hesse 

Born Hamburg, Germany, 1936. 
Studied Yale University, 1959 : 
B.F.A.; Yale Norfolk FeUowship, 1957; 
Cooper Union, New York, 1954-1959. 
Lives in New York. 



53 



One-man exhibitions : 

1968 Fischbach GaUery, New York. 

1969 Ricke Gallery, Cologne. 

Group exhibitions : 

1961 John Heller Gallery, New York, 

Three Young Americans." 
1961 Wadsworth Atheneum, 

Hartford, Connecticut. 
1961 Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn. 

1963 Allan Stone Gallery, New York, 
"Recent Drawings." 

1964 Park Place Gallery, New York. 

1965 Dusseldorf Kunsthalle, Studio 
fur Graphik, Dusseldorf. 

1966 Riverside Museum, New York, 
Thirtieth Annual Exhibition of 
American Abstract Artists. 

1966 Fischbach Gallery, New York, 
"Eccentric Abstraction." 

1966 School of Visual Arts Gallery, 
New York, "Working Drawings.' 

1966 Graham Gallery, New York, 
"Abstract Inflationism, Stuffed 
Expressionism." 

1967 The Lannis Museum of Normal 
Art, New York, "Normal Art." 

1967 Weatherspoon Gallery, Greens- 
boro, North Carolina, "Art on 
Paper." 

1967 Finch College Museum of Art, 
Ithaca, New York, "Art in Series.' 

1967 New York State Fair, Syracuse, 
New York, "Art Today 1967." 

1967 Ithaca College Museum of Art, 
Ithaca, New York, "Drawings 
1967." 

1968 Flint Institute of Art, Flint, 
Michigan, "Made of Plastic." 

1968 John Gibson Gallery, New York, 
"Anti-Form." 

1968 American Federation of Arts, 
"Soft Sculpture," (travelling 
exhibition). 

1968 Leo Castelli Warehouse, New 
York, "9 at Leo Castelli." 

1968 Milwaukee Art Center, 

Milwaukee, "Options," (travel- 
ling exhibition). 

1968 Moore College of Art, Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania. 

1969 Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, "1968 Annual 
Exhibition : Sculpture." 

1969 New Jersey State Museum, 
Trenton, "Soft Art." 



1969 Institute of Contemporary Arts, 
Philadelphia, "Plastics and 
New Art." 

1969 The Museum of Modern Art, 

New York, "New Methods, New 
Media," (travelling exhibition). 

1969 Finch College, New York, "Art 
in Series." 

1969 Kunsthalle, Bern, "When 
Attitudes Become Form." 

1969 Swarthmore College, Wilcox 
Gallery, Pennsylvania, "Hard, 
Soft, Plastic." 

1969 The Westmoreland County 
Museum of Art, Greensburg, 
Pennsylvania. 

1969 Aldrich Museum of Contempo- 
rary Art, Ridgefield, Connecticut, 
"Highlights 1968-1969." 

1969 Jewish Museum, New York, 
"Plastic Presence," (travelling 
exhibition). 

1969 Ricke Gallery, Cologne. 

Collections: 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry FieweU. 

Mrs. Sidney Gerber. 

Dr. and Mrs. A. H. Esman. 

Weatherspoon Gallery, University of 

North Carolina. 
Mr. and Mrs. Victor Ganz. 
Mr. Arthur Cohen. 
Allen Art Museum, Oberlin College. 
Mr. Kurt Olden. 
Miss Betty Parsons. 
Ricke Gallery, Cologne. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bertram Amel. 

Bibliography : 

Kramer, Hilton. Review: Eva Hesse, 

The New York Times, November 

23, 1968. 
Perreault, John. "The Materiality of 

Matter," The Village Voice, 

November 28, 1968. 
Last, Martin. "Reviews and Previews: 

Eva Hesse," Art News, November 

1968. 
Mellow, James. "New York Letter: 

Eva Hesse," Art International, 

Vol. 13, No. 1 , January 1969, 

pp. 53-54. 
Wasserman, Emily. "Reviews: New 

York," Artforum, Vol. 7, No. 5, 

January 1969, p. 60. 

Neil Jenney 

Born Mast Swamps, Connecticut, 
1945. Self-taught. Lives in New York. 

My sculpture is theatrical. The activity 
among the physical presences of the 



items and the events they realize, 
provided they exist together, is 
theatrical. This goes beyond the 
visual image .—Summer 1968. 

Ideally, my sculpture exists unseen. 

-Summer 19681 

My paintings are not concerned with 
color, space or composition. My 
paintings are concerned with realities.^ 
-Winter 1968 

One-man exhibition : 

1968 Gallery Rudolf Zwimer , Colognej 

Group exhibitions : 

1967 Noah Goldowsky Gallery, New 
York, "Arp to Artschwager." 

1968 Noah Goldowsky Gallery, New 
York. 

1969 Cornell University, Ithaca, New 
York. 

1969 Kunsthalle, Bern, "When 
Attitudes Become Form." 

1969 Stedelijk Museum, "Op Losse 
Schroeven," ("Square Pegs in 
Round Holes"). 

Bibliography : 

Wasserman, Emily. "Reviews: New 

York," Artforum, Vol. 7, No. 1, 

September 1968, p. 61. 

Barry LeVa 

Born Long Beach, California, 1941. 
Studied California State College at 
Long Beach; Los Angeles Art Center 
School; Otis Art Institute, Los Angeles, 
1967 : M.F.A. Lives temporarily in 
Minneapolis. 

Bibliography : 

Rose, Barbara. "Gallery Without 

Walls," Art in America, Vol. 56, 

No. 2, February-March 1968. 
Daniele, Fidel A. "Some New Los 

Angeles Artists," Artforum, Vol. 6, 

No. 7, March 1968, p. 47. 
Livingston, Jane. "Barry Le Va : 

Distributional Sculpture," 

Artforum, Vol. 7, No. 3, November 

1968, pp. 50-54. 

Robert Lobe 

Born Detroit, Michigan, 1945. Studied 
Oberiin College, Oberlin, Ohio, 1967: 
BA. Worked at Hunter College, New 
York, 1967-1968. Lives in New York. 



Lives 



Grouf 



E: 
S( 

6& 
?Lf 
"I 

i86?Tl 
D( 
Fc 

1867 Lo 



54 



Robert Morris 

Born Kansas City, Missouri, 1931. 
Studied University of Kansas City; 
Kansas City Art Institute, 1948-1950; 
California School of Fine Arts, 1951 ; 
Reed College, Oregon, 1953-1955. 
Lives in New York. 

One-man exhibitions : 

1957 Dilexi Gallery, San Francisco. 

1958 DUexi Gallery, San Francisco. 

1963 Green Gallery, New York. 

1964 Galerie Schmela, Dusseldorf. 

1964 Green Gallery, New York. 

1965 Green Gallery, New York. 

1966 Dwan Gallery, Los Angeles. 

1967 Leo Castelli Gallery, New York. 

1968 Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 
Eindhoven, The Netherlands. 

1968 Leo Castelli Gallery, New York. 

1968 Galerie Ileana Sonnabend, Paris. 

1969 Leo CastelU Gallery, New York. 

Group exhibitions : 

1963 Green Gallery, New York. 

1963 Cordier & Ekstrom, Inc., New 

York, "Sight and Sound." 
1963 Wadsworth Atheneum, 

Hartford, Connecticut, "Black, 

White and Grey." 
1965 Tibor de Nagy Gallery, New 

York, "Shape and Structure." 

1965 Green Gallery, New York, 
"Flavin, Judd, Morris, Williams." 

1966 Institute of Contemporary Art, 
University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, "The 'Other' 
Tradition." 

1966 Jewish Museum, New York, 

"Primary Structures." 
1966 Finch College, New York, "Art 

in Progress." 
1966 Art Institute of Chicago, 

Chicago, "68th American 

Exhibition." 
1966 Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 

"Eight Sculptors : The 

Ambiguous Image." 
1966 Whitney Museum of American 

Art, New York, "Annual 

Exhibition 1966: Contemporary 

Sculpture and Prints." 

1966 Dwan Gallery, New York, "10." 
tf§l967 Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, 

"Ten Years." 

1967 The Detroit Institute of Arts, 
Detroit, "Color, Image and 
Form." 

1967 Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, Los Angeles, "American 
Sculpture of the Sixties," 
( travelling exhibition ) . 



1967 California State College, Los 

Angeles, "New Sculpture and 

Shaped Canvas." 
1967 The Museum of Modern Art, 

New York, "The 1960's: 

Painting and Sculpture from the 

Museum Collection." 
1967 International Institute Torcuato 

di Telia, Buenos Aires. 
1967 Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 

Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 

"Kompass III." 

1967 Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum, New York, Fifth 
Guggenheim International 
Exhibition, (travelling 
exhibition ) . 

1968 Albright-Knox Gallery, Buffalo, 
Second Buffalo Festival of the 
Arts Today, "Plus by Minus : 
Today's Half-Century." 

1968 Gemeentemuseum, Den Hague, 
"Minimal Art." 

1968 Fondation Maeght, Saint Paul, 
France, "L' Art Vivant 1965- 
1968." 

1968-69 The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, "Art of the Real : USA 
1948-1968," (travelling 
exhibition ) . 

1969 Vancouver Art Gallery, 
Vancouver, Canada, "New York 
13." 

1969 Institute of Contemporary Art, 
Philadelphia, "Plastics and New 
Art." 

1969 C.A.A.M., University of Puerto 
Rico, Mayaguez, "FRARM- 
RROREEROFIBSEATERLR," 
(Robert Morris-Rafael Ferrer). 

1969 New Jersey State Museum, 
Trenton, "Soft Art." 

1969 Kunsthalle, Bern, "When 
Attitudes Become Form." 

1969 Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 
"Op Losse Schroeven," ("Square 
Pegs in Round Holes" ) . 

1969 Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, "1968 Annual 
Exhibition; Sculpture." 

Biblography : 

Rose, Barbara. "New York Letter," Art 

International, Vol. 7, No. 9, 

December 5, 1963, pp. 63-64. 
Berrigan, Ted. "Reviews and 

Previews : Robert Morris," Art 

News, Vol. 63, No. 10, February 

1965, p. 13. 
Judd, Donald. "In the Galleries : 

Robert Morris," Arts, Vol. 39, No. 5, 

February 1965, p. 54. 



Lippard, Lucy R. "New York Letter," 
Art International, Vol. 9, No. 2, 
March 1965, p. 46. 

Rose, Barbara. "ABC Art," Art in 
America, Vol. 53, No. 5, October- 
November 1965, p. 63. 

Friedman, Martin. "Robert Morris," 
essay in exhibition catalogue. Eight 
Sculptors: The Ambiguous Image, 
Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 
1966, pp. 18 + 20-21. 

Antin, David. "Art and Information, 
1 : Grey Paint, Robert Morris," Art 
News, Vol. 65, No. 2, April 1966, 
pp. 22-24. 

Factor, Don. "Los Angeles: Robert 
Morris," Artforum, Vol. 4, No. 9, 
May 1966, p. 13. 

Friedman, Martin. "Robert Morris : 
Polemics and Cubes," Art 
International, Vol. 10, December 

1966, p. 23. 

Rainer, Yvonne. "Don't Give the Game 
Away," Arts, Vol. 41 , No. 6, April 

1967, pp. 44-47. 

Rainer, Yvonne. "A Quasi Survey of 
Some 'Minimalist' Tendencies in 
the Quantitatively Minimal Dance 
Activity Midst the Plethora, or An 
Analysis of Trio A," Minimal Art: A 
Critical Anthology, Gregory 
Battcock,ed., New York, 1968, 
pp. 263-264 + 266-267 + 269-273. 

Sauerwein, Laurent. "Two Sculptures 
by Robert Morris," Studio 
International, Vol. 175, No. 900, 
May 1968, p. 276. 

Beeren, W.A.L. "Robert Morris," 
Museumjournaal, Serie 13, No. 3, 

1968, p. 135. 

Leering, J. "Robert Morris : 2 L Shapes 
1965," Museumjournaal, Serie 13, 
No. 3, 1968, p. 135. 

Louweien, Wijers. "Interview met 
Robert Morris," Museumjournaal, 
Seriel3,No. 4, 1968,p. 14. 

Kaprow, Allan. "The Shape of the Art 
Environment," Artforum, Vol. 6, 
No. 10, Summer 1968, pp. 32-33. 

Kozloff, Max. "Reviews : New York," 
Artforum, Vol. 6, No. 10, Summer 
1968, p. 48. 

By the artist : 

"Notes on Sculpture," Artforum, Vol. 
4, No. 6, February 1966, pp. 42-44. 

"Dance," The Village Voice, Part I, 
February 3, 1966, pp. 8 + 24-25, 
Part II, February 10, 1966, p. 15. 



"Notes on Sculpture, Part II," 
Artforum, Vol. 5, No. 2, October 

1966, pp. 20-23. 

"Notes on Sculpture, Part III," 

Artforum, Vol. 5, No. 10, Summer 
1967. 

"Portfolio: 4 Sculptors, Recent Works 
and Statements by Four Young 
Americans," Perspecta (The Yale 
Architectural Journal ) No. 1 1 , 

1967, p. 53. 

"Anti Form," Artforum, Vol. 6, No. 8, 
April 1968, pp. 33-35. 

Bruce Nauinan 

Born Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1941. 
Studied University of Wisconsin : 
B.S. ; University of California at 
Davis: M.A. Lives in Southampton, 
New York. 

One-man exhibitions : 

1966 Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 

Angeles. 
1968 Leo Castelli Gallery, New York. 

1968 Konrad Fischer Gallery, 
Dusseldorf. 

1969 Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles. 

Group exhibitions : 

1966 San Francisco Art Institute, 

San Francisco, (two-man). 
1966 Fischbach Gallery, New York, 

"Eccentric Abstraction." 

1966 San Francisco Museum, San 
Francisco, "New Directions." 

1967 Los Angeles County Museum of 
Art, Los Angeles, "American 
Sculpture of the Sixties," 

( travelling exhibition ) . 

1968 Kassel, "4.documenta." 
1968 Allen Art Museum, Oberlin, 

Ohio, "Three Young Americans." 
1968 Leo Castelli Warehouse, New 

York, "9 at Leo Castelli." 
1968 American Federation of Arts, 

"Soft Sculpture," (travelling 

exhibition). 
1968 Washington University Gallery 

of Art, St. Louis, "Here and 

Now." 

1968 Corcoran GaUery of Art, 
Washington, D.C., 31st Annual 
Exhibition. 

1969 Kunsthalle, Bern, "When 
Attitudes Become Form." 

1969 Sledelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 
"Op Losse Schroeven," ("Square 
Pegs in Round Holes" ) . 



Bibliography : 

"William Geis and Bruce Nauman : A 
Two-Man Exhibition," San 
Francisco Art Institute, San 
Francisco, 1966. (A mimeographed 
article about the artists, by the 
GaUery at the time of the exhibition, 
September 26-October 22, 1966). 

Monte, James. "Bagless Funk," essay 
in exhibition catalogue, "American 
Sculpture of the Sixties," Los 
Angeles County Museum of Art, 
Maurice Tuchman, ed., Los 
Angeles, 1967, p. 35. 

Danieli, Fidel A. "The Art of Bruce 
Nauman," Artforum, Vol. 6, No. 4, 
December 1966, pp. 65-66. 

Raffaele, Joseph and Baker, Elizabeth. 
"Way-Out West : Interviews with 4 
San Francisco Artists," Art News, 
Summer 1967, pp. 40-41. 

Gilardi, Piero. "Da New York," Flash 
Art, No. 5, Roma, 1967, p. 1-2. 

Stiles, Knut. "Reviews : San 

Francisco," Artforum, Vol. 5, No. 4, 
December 1966, pp. 65-66. 

Whitney, David. "Notes," essay in 
exhibition catalogue, "Bruce 
Nauman," Leo Castelli Gallery, 
New York, January-February 1968. 

Pincus-Witten, Robert. "Reviews: 
New York," Artforum, Vol. 6, No. 8, 
April 1968. pp. 63-64. 

Steve Reich 

Born New York, 1936. Studied Cornell 
University, Ithaca, New York, 1957 : 
B.A., philosophy; Juilliard School of 
Music, New York, 1958-1961; Mills 
College, Oakland, California, 1963: 
M.A., music. Lives in New York. 

Music as a Gradual Process 

I do not mean the process of composi- 
tion, but rather pieces of music that 
are, literally, processes. 

The distinctive thing about musical 
processes is that they determine all the 
note to note (sound to sound) details 
and all the over-all formal morphology 
simultaneously . (Think of a round or 
infinite canon in traditional music.) 

I am interested in perceptible 
processes. I want to be able to hear the 
process happening throughout the 
sounding music. 

To facilitate really close perception, a 
process should happen very gradually. 



Performing and listening to music 
that is a perceptible, gradual process 
resembles: 

turning over an hour glass and watch 
ing the sand slowly run through to 
the bottom; 

pulling back a swing, releasing it, and\ 
observing it gradually come to rest; 
placing your feet in the sand by the 
ocean's edge and watching, feeling 
and listening to the waves gradually 
bury them. 

Though I may have the pleasure of 
discovering musical processes and 
composing the musical material to 
run through them, once the process 
is set up and loaded it runs by itself. 

Material may suggest ivhat sort of 
process it shoidd be run through 
(content suggests form), andprocesseij 
may suggest what sort of material 
shoidd be run through them (form 
suggests content). If the shoe fits, 
wear it. 

Whether a musical process is 
realized through live human perform- 
ance or through some electro- 
mechanical means is not finally very 
important. One of the most beautiful 
concerts I ever heard consisted of four 
composers playing their tapes in a 
dark hall. (A tape is interesting when 
it's an interesting tape.) 

It's quite natural to think about 
musical processes if one is frequently 
working with electro-mechanical 
sound equipment. All music turns out 
to be ethnic music. 

Musical processes can give one a 
direct contact with the impersonal ^ 
and also a kind of complete control, 
and one doesn't always think of the 
impersonal and complete control as 
going together. By "a kind" of com- 
plete control I mean that by running 
this material through this process I 
completely control all that results, 
but also that I accept all that results 
without changes. 

John Cage has used processes and has 
certainly accepted their results, but 
the processes he used were more com- 



110 (!l 

m 

iittit 
mu 

iit.i 
ma 



h iu 



tent 
Kite 



56 



f 



positional ones that could not be heard 
when the piece ivas performed. The 
process of using the I Ching or 
imperfections in a sheet of paper to 
determine musical parameters can't 
be heard when listening to music 
composed that xvay. The compositional 
process and the sounding music have 
no audible connection. Similarly, in 
serial music, the series itself is seldom 
audible. (This is a basic difference 
between serial, (basically European) 
music and serial (basically American) 
art, ivhere the perceived series is 
usually the focal point of the work.) 

What I'm interested in is a composi- 
tional process and a sounding music 
that are one and the same thing. 

James Tenney said in conversation, 
fSM "then the composer isn't privy to 
I anythi7ig". I don't know any secrets 
of structure that you can't hear. We 
all listen to the process together since 
it's quite audible, and one of the 
reason's it's quite audible is because 
it's happening extremely gradually. 

The use of hidden structural devices 
in music never appealed to me. Even 
when all the cards are on the table 
and everyone hears what is gradually 
happening in a musical process there 
are still enough mysteries to satisfy 
all. These mysteries are the imper- 
sonal, unintended, psycho-acoustic 
bi-products of the intended process. 
These might include harmonics, 
difference tones, sub-melodies heard 
within repeated melodic patterns, 
stereophonic effects due to loud- 
speaker or listener location, slight 
irregularities in performance, etc. 

I begin to perceive these minute 
details when I can sustain close 
attention and a gradual process 
invites my sustained attention. By 
"gradual" I mean extremely gradual; 
aprocess happening so slowly and 
gradually that listening to it resembles 
^watching a minute hand on a watch— 
you can perceive it moving after you 
stay with it a little while. 

Many modal musics like Indian clas- 
sical, John Coltrane's during the early 



1960's, some recent rock and roll and 
other new musics may make us aivare 
of minute sound details because in 
being modal (constant key center, 
hypnotically droning) they naturally 
focus on these details rather than on 
key modulation, counterpoint and 
other peculiarly luestern devices. 
Nevertheless, these modal musics 
remain more or less strict frameworks 
for improvisation and/ or expression. 
They are not processes. 

While performing and listening to 
gradual musical processes one can 
participate in a particularly liberating 
and impersonal kind of ritual. Focus- 
ing in on the musical process makes 
possible that shift of attention aivay 
from he and she and you and me out- 
wards towards it. 

-Steve Reich, October 1968 

Appeared frequently as composer/ 
performer at the San Francisco Tape 
Music Center, 1964-65. 

Collaborated with artist William T. 
Wiley in creating theatre event Over 
Evident Falls first presented at the 
Hansen Gallery, San Francisco, 1968. 

Performed recently at Yale University, 
New Haven, Connecticut; New School 
for Social Research, New York; School 
of Visual Arts, Fall Gallery series; The 
Museum of Modern Art, New York; 
the Orchestral Space Festival, Tokyo. 

Scores published in Source, No. 3, and 
in John Cage's recent book of collected 
scores. Notations. 

Works : 

1966 Come Out, recorded on C.B.S. 
Odyssey Records. 

1967 Piano Phase, recorded by Toshi 
Ichiyanagi and Yukio Tsuchiya 
on Victor of Japan. 

It's Gonna Rain (1965) andViolin 
Phase (1967) recorded by Paul 
Zukof sky on a Columbia Records Ip 
to be released in July of 1969. 

Robert Rohm 

Born Cincinnati, Ohio, 1934. Studied 
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York, 
1956: B.I.D.; Cranbrook Academy of 
Art, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1960. 
Lives in Wakefield, Rhode Island. 

One-man exhibitions : 
1963 Aspen Art Gallery, Aspen, 
Colorado. 



1964 Royal Marks Gallery, New York. 
1966 University of Rhode Island, 
Kingston. 

Group exhibitions : 
1957 Columbus Gallery of Fine Art, 
Columbus, Ohio, "May Show." 

1957 Bodley Gallery, New York. 

1958 Columbus Gallery of Fine Art, 
Columbus, Ohio, "Harry Rich, 
Paintings; Robert Rohm, 
Sculpture." 

1959 Dayton Art Institute, Dayton, 
Ohio, "Artists of the Dayton 
Area." 

1959 Detroit Art Institute, Detroit, 
"155th Annual of American 
Painting and Sculpture," 
( travelling exhibition ) . 

1961 Flint Institute of Art, Flint, 

Michigan, "Masterpieces in the 
Midwest." 

1961 Pennsylvania Academy of Fine 
Art, Philadelphia, "156th 
Annual of American Drawings." 

1962 Aegis Gallery, New York, "Tenth 
Street U.S.A." 

1962 Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, "Annual 
Exhibition of American Drawing 
and Sculpture." 

1963 Rhode Island School of Design 
Museum of Art, Providence, 
"Sculpture in the Collection of 
the Artist." 

1963 Bundy Art Gallery, New York, 
"First Sculpture Annual." 

1963 Lever House, New York, 
Sculptor's Guild exhibition. 

1964 New School for Social Research, 
New York, Contemporary 
Sculpture. 

1964 Royal Marks Gallery, New York, 
"Sculptor's Drawings." 

1964 Aspen Art Gallery, Aspen, 
Colorado. 

1965 Bundy Art Gallery, Waitsfield, 
Vermont, "Aspen Artists." 

1966 Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, "Annual 
Exhibition 1966: Contemporary 
Sculpture and Prints." 

1966 Providence, Rhode Island, 
"Rhode Island Arts Festival." 

1966 Obehsk Gallery, Boston, 
"Obehsk 66." 

1969 New Jersey State Museum, 
Trenton, "Soft Art." 



Robert Ryman 

Born Nashville, Tennessee, 1930. 
Studied Tennessee Polytechnic 
Institute, 1948-1949; George Peabody 
College for Teachers, 1949-1950. 
Lives in New York. 

One-man exhibitions : 

1967 Bianchini Gallery, New York. 

1968 Galerie Heiner Friedrich, 
Munich. 

1968 Konrad Fischer Gallery, 
Dusseldorf. 

1969 Fischbach Gallery, New York. 

Group exhibitions : 

1965 American Express Pavilion, 

New York World's Fair, 

New York. 

1965 Riverside Museum, New York. 

1966 Loeb Student Center, New York 
University, New York. 

1966 Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum, New York, "Systemic 
Painting." 

1967 Ithaca College Museum, Ithaca, 
New York. 

1967 Institute of Contemporary Art, 

Philadelphia. 
1967 Lannis Museum, New York. 

1967 A. M. Sachs Gallery, New York. 
1967-68 The Museum of Modern Art, 

New York, "Montreal Consul 
General," (travelling 
exhibition). 

1968 American Federation of Arts, 
New York, "Structural Art." 

1968 The Contemporary Arts Center, 

Cincinnati. 
1968 Galerie Heiner Friedrich, 

Munich. 
1968 Konrad Fischer Gallery, 

Dusseldorf. 
1968 The Museum of Modern Art, 

New York, "Art in Embassies," 

(Budapest), (travelling 

exhibition). 
1968 American Federation of Arts, 

New York, "The Square in 

Painting." 
1968 Riverside Museum, New York. 
1968 Bykert Gallery, New York. 
1968 John Gibson Gallery, New York, 

"Anti-Form." 
1968 Paula Cooper Gallery, New York, 

Benefit for the Student 

Mobilization Committee to End 

the War in Vietnam. 



1969 Washington University Gallery 

of Art, St. Louis, "Here and 

Now." 
1969 Kunsthalle, Bern, "When 

Attitudes Become Form." 
1969 Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 

"Op Losse Schroeven," ("Square 

Pegs in Round Holes" ) . 
1969 North Carolina Museum, 

"American Association of 

Abstract Artists." 

Bibliography : 

Lippard, Lucy R. "The Silent Art," Art 
m America, Vol. 55, No. 1, January- 
February 1967, p. 63. 

Waldman, Diane. "Reviews and 
Previews : Robert Ryman," Art 
News, Vol. 66, No. 4, Summer 
1967, p. 65. 

Kosuth, Joseph. "In the Galleries : 
Robert Ryman," Arts, Vol. 41 , No. 8, 
Summer 1967, pp. 63-64. 

Richard Serra 

Born San Francisco, 1939. Studied 
University of California, Berkeley; 
University of California, Santa 
Barbara: B.A.; Yale University, New 
Haven, Connecticut: B.A.,M.F.A. 
Lives in New York. 

One-man exhibitions : 

1966 Galleria La Salita, Rome. 

1968 Galerie Ricke, Cologne. 

Group exhibitions : 

1966 Yale University, New Haven, 
Connecticut, "Drawings." 

1967 Purdue University, Purdue, 
Indiana, "Directions." 

1967 Ithaca College Museum, Ithaca, 
New York, "Drawings 1967." 

1967 Noah Goldowsky Gallery, New 
York, "Arp to Artschwager." 

1968 Noah Goldowsky Gallery, New 
York, "Three Sculptors." 

1968 Noah Goldowsky Gallery, New 
York, "Arp to Artschwager." 

1968 Galerie Ricke, Cologne, 
"Programml." 

1968 John Gibson Gallery, "Anti- 
Form." 

1968 American Federation of Arts, 
New York, "Soft Sculpture," 
( travelling exhibition ) . 

1968 Leo Castelli Warehouse, New 
York, "9 at Leo Castelli." 

1968 Kunstmarkt, Cologne. 



1969 Whitney Museum of American 

Art, New York, "Contemporary 

American Sculpture: Selection 

II." 
1969 The Museum of Modern Art, 

"New Media, New Methods," 

( travelling exhibition ) . 
1969 Washington University Gallery 

of Art, St. Louis, "Here and 

Now." 
1969 New Jersey State Museum, 

Trenton, "Soft Art." 
1969 Kunsthalle, Bern, "When 

Attitudes Become Form." 
1969 Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 

"Op Losse Schroeven," (Square 

Pegs in Round Holes" ) . 
1969 Solomon R. Guggenheim 

Museum, New York, 

"Theodoron : 9 Young Artists." 
1969 Galerie Ricke, Cologne, 

"6 Kiinstler." 

Bibliography : 

Pincus-Witten, Robert. "Reviews : 

New York," Artforuvi, Vol. 6, No. 8, 

April 1968, pp. 63-65. 
Robins, Corinne. "The Circle in Orbit," 

Art in America, Vol. 56, No. 6, 

November-December 1968, p. 66. 

Joel Shapiro 

Born New York, 1941. Studied 
University of Colorado; New York 
University, 1964: B.A. Lived in India, 
1965-1966. Lives in New York. 

Michael Snow 

DEAR JAMES K. MONTE 

AND MARCIA TUCKER, 
DATE AND PLACE OF BIRTH 
SCHOOLS ATTENDED 

ONE-MAN SHOWS, GROUP EXHIBITIONS 
PRIVATE COLLECTIONS, MUSEUMS 
AWARDS 
BIBLIOGRAPHY 

QUITE A LOT OF THINGS HAVE 
HAPPENED AND HE'S DONE A LOT OF 
THINGS, MET A LOT OF PEOPLE UNDER 
VARIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES, BEEN 
MANY DIFFERENT PLACES. 

YOURS SINCERELY, 
MICHAEL SNOW 



Cal; 



58 



Keith Sonnier 

Born Mamon, Louisiana, 1941. 
Studied University of Southwestern 
Louisiana, 1959-1963: B.A.; travel 
and study in France, 1963-1964; 
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, 
New Jersey, 1965-1966: M.F.A. Lives 
in New York. 

One-man exhibitions : 

1966 Douglass College, New Jersey. 

1968 Galerie Ricke, Cologne. 

Group exhibitions : 

1965 Amel Gallery, New York 

1966 Douglass College, New Jersey, 
"Kinetic Art." 

1966 Fischbach Gallery, New York, 
"Eccentric Abstraction." 

1967 Noah Goldowsky Gallery, New 
York, "Arp to Artschwager." 

1968 Noah Goldowsky Gallery, New 
York, (three-man). 

1968 Galerie Ricke, Cologne, 

"ProgrammL" 
1968 American Federation of Arts, 

"Soft Sculpture," (travelling 

exhibition ) . 
1968 Galerie Ricke, Kassel. 
1968 Leo Castelli Warehouse, New 

York, "9 at Leo Castelli." 
1968 John Gibson Gallery, New York, 

"Anti-Form." 
1968 Riverside Museum, New York, 

"American Abstract Artists." 

1968 Kunstmarkt, Cologne. 

1969 New Jersey State Museum, 
Trenton, "Soft Art." 

1969 The Museum of Modern Art, 

New York, "New Methods, New 

Media," (travelling exhibition). 
1969 Galerie Ricke, Cologne, 

"6 Kiinstler. 
1969 Washington University Gallery 

of Art, St. Louis, "Here and 

Now." 
1969 Kunsthalle, Bern, "When 

Attitudes Become Form." 
1969 Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 

"Op Losse Schroeven," ("Square 

Pegs in Round Holes"). 

Bibliography : 

Lippard, Lucy R. "On Erotic Art," 

Hudson Review, Spring 1967. 
Wasserman, EmUy. "Reviews: New 
York," Artforum, Vol. 7, No. 1, 
September 1968, p. 61. 
Calas, Nicholas, "For Interpretation," 
Arts, Vol. 43, No. 2, November 
1968, p. 29. 



Richard Tuttle 

Born Rahway, New Jersey, 1941. 
Studied Trinity College, Hartford, 
Connecticut, 1963: B. A.; Cooper 
Union, New York. Lives in New York. 

One-man exhibitions : 
1965 The Betty Parsons Gallery, 
New York. 

1967 The Betty Parsons Gallery, 
New York. 

1968 The Betty Parsons Gallery, 
New York. 

1968 Galerie Schmela, Dusseldorf. 

Group exhibitions : 

1965 San Francisco Museum, San 

Francisco , "A New York Collector 
Selects: Mrs. Burton Tremaine." 

1965 Byron Gallery, New York, 
"The Box Show." 

1965 Lehigh University, Lehigh, 
Pennsylvania, "Contemporary 
American Painting." 

1965-67 Virginia Museum of Fine 
Arts, Richmond, (travelling 
exhibition). 

1966 Lehigh University, Lehigh, 
Pennsylvania, 12th Annual Con- 
temporary American Painting 
Exhibition. 

1966 The Museum of Modern Art, 

Penthouse Gallery, New York. 
1968 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 

"Pittsburgh Plan for Art." 
1968 Trinity College, Hartford, 

Connecticut, "Preview 1968." 
1968 State University College, 

Potsdam, New York. 
1968 Finch College, New York, "Betty 

Parsons Private Collection." 
1968 Des Moines Art Center, Des 

Moines, Iowa, "Painting: Out 

from the Wall." 

1968 Bykert Gallery, New York. 

1969 New Jersey State Museum, 
Trenton, "Soft Art." 

1969 Washington University Gallery 
of Art, St. Louis, "Here and 
Now." 

1969 Kunsthalle, Bern, "When 
Attitudes Become Form." 

Bibliography : 

Burton, Scott. "Reviews and Previews : 

Richard Tuttle, Art News, Vol. 66, 

No. 9, January 1968, p. 56. 
Pincus-Witten, Robert. "Reviews: 

New York," Artform, Vol. 6, No. 7, 

March 1968, p. 56. 
Smart, Jeffrey. "Artists on their Art," 

Art International, Vol. 12, No. 5, 

Mayl5, 1968,p. 48. 



General Bibliography 

(listed chronologically) 

Articles and Reviews : 

Oeri, G. "Object of Art," Quadrum, 

No. 16, 1964, pp. 13-14. (Morris) 
Rose, Barbara. "Looking at American 

Sculpture," Artforiini, February 1965, 

pp. 29-36. 
Rose, Barbara. "ABC Art," Art in America, 

October /November 1965, pp. 57-69. 
Morris, Robert. "Notes on Sculpture," 

Artforum, Vol. 4, No. 6, February 1966, 

pp. 42-44. 
Bochner, Mel. "Primary Structures," Arts, 

Vol. 40, No. 8, June 1966, pp. 32-35. 

( Andre, Morris ) 
Glueck, Grace. "ABC Erotic, New York 

Gallery Notes," Art in America, Vol. 

54, September-October 1966, p. 105. 
Alloway, Lawrence. "Background to 

Systemic," Art Neivs, Vol. 65, No. 6, 

October 1966, p. 32. (Bollinger, Ryman) 
Morris, Robert. "Notes on Sculpture, 

Part II," Artforum, Vol. 5, No. 2, 

October 1966, pp. 20-23. 
Lippard, Lucy R. "Rejective Art," Art 

Interyiational, Vol. 10, No. 8, October 

1966, p. 35. (Andre, Morris) 
Antin, David. "Another Category: Eccen- 
tric Abstraction," Artforum, Vol. 5, 

No. 3, November 1966, pp. 56-57. 

(Hesse, Nauman, Sonnier) 
Lippard, Lucy R. "Eccentric Abstraction," 

Art International, Vol. 10, No. 9, 

November 1966, pp. 28 + 34-40. 

(Hesse, Nauman, Sonnier) 
Bannard, Darby. "Present-Day Art and 

Ready-Made Styles," Artforum, Vol. 5, 

No. 4, December 1966, p. 33. 



Greenberg, Clement. "Recentness of 
Sculpture," essay in exhibition cata- 
logue, "American Sculpture of the 
Sixties," Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, Los Angeles, 1967, pp. 24-26. 

Coplans, John. "The New Sculpture and 
Technology," essay in exhibition 
catalogue, "American Sculpture of the 
Sixties," Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, Los Angeles, 1967, p. 23. 
(Andre) 

Kozloff , Max. "The Poetics of Softness," 
essay in exhibition catalogue, 
"American Sculpture of the Sixties," 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
Los Angeles, 1967, pp. 26-30. 

Michaelson, Annette. "10 x 10: concrete 
reasonableness, "Arfforinn, Vol. 5, No. 
5, January 1967, pp. 30-31. (Andre, 
Morris) 

Picard, Lil. "Mobile minimalkunst," Das 
Kunstwerlz, April 1967, p. 23. (Andre, 
Morris) 

Morris, Robert. "Notes on Sculpture, 
Part III," Artforum, Vol. 5, No. 10, 
Summer 1967, pp. 24-29. 

Gilardi, Piero. Essay in Flash Art, Roma, 
15 January/ 15 February, 1968, p. 2. 
(Andre) 

Lippard, Lucy R. and Chandler, John. 
"The Dematerialization of Art," Art 
International, Vol. 12, No. 2, February 
1968, pp. 31-36. (Andre, Morris) 

Hahn, Otto. "Ingres and Primary Struc- 
tures," Artforum, Vol. 6, No. 6, 
February 1968. (Andre, Morris) 

Smithson, Robert, "A Museum of Lan- 
guage in the Vicinity of Art," Art 
International, Vol. 12, No. 3, March 
1968, p. 21. (Andre, Morris) 

Morris, Robert. "Anti Form," Artforum, 
Vol. 6, No. 8, April 1968, pp. 33-35. 

Dienst, R. G. "Austellungen in New York," 
6-7 (XX), April-May 1968, pp. 23-78. 
(Andre, Serra) 



Pincus-Witten, Robert. "Reviews: New 
York," Artforum, Vol. 6, No. 8, April 
1968, pp. 63-65. (Nauman, Serra) 

Battcock, Gregory. "The Art of the Real," 
Arts, Vol. 42, No. 8, June/Summer 

1968, pp. 44-47. (Andre, Morris) 
Alfieri, B. "Come Andare Avanti," Metro, 

no. 14, juni 1968, pp. 81-90. (Morris, 
Nauman) 

Kaprow, Allan. "The Shape of the Art 
Environment," Artforum, Vol. 6, No. 
10, Summer 1968, pp. 32-33. 
(Bollinger, Hesse, Morris, Nauman, 
Saret, Serra, Sonnier) 

Perreault, John. "Art: A Test," The 
Yillage Voice, Vol. 14, No. 10, 
December 19, 1968, p. 19. (Bolhnger, 
Hesse, Morris, Nauman, Saret, Serra, 
Sonnier) 

Leider, Philip. " 'The Properties of 
Materials' : In the Shadow of Robert 
Morris," The New York Times, 
December 22, 1968, p. D 31. (Bollinger 
Hesse, Morris, Nauman, Saret, Serra, 
Sonnier) 

Smith, Larry. "Flexible Constructions: 
Floppy & Wonderful," The Village 
Voice, Vol. 14, No. 17, February 6, 

1969, p. 13. (Bollinger, Hesse, Morris, 
Nauman, Saret, Serra, Sonnier) 

Kozloff, Max. "9 in a Warehouse," Art- 
forum, Vol. 7, No. 6, February 1969, 
pp. 38-42. (Bollinger, Hesse, Morris, 
Nauman, Saret, Serra, Sonnier) 

Miiller, Gregoire. "Robert Morris Presents 
Anti-form," Arts, Vol. 43, No. 4, 
February 1969, pp. 29-30. (Bollinger, 
Hesse, Morris, Nauman, Saret, Serra, 
Sonnier) 

Pomeroy, Ralph. "New York: Moving 
Out," Art and Artists, January 1969, 
p. 56. 






I 



60 



Ros 



Kramer, Hilton. "The Emperor's New 
Bikini," Art in America, Vol. 57, No. 1, 
January/February 1969, pp. 49-55. 
(Andre, Morris, Saret, Serra, Sonnier) 

Gilardi, Piero. "Microemotive Art," 
Museumiournaal, Serie 13, No. 4, 

1968, pp. 198-203. (Hesse, Morris, 
Nauman, Sonnier) 

Wasserman, Emily. "Reviews : New 
York," Artforum, Vol. 7, No. 1, Septem- 
ber 1968, p. 61. ( Jenney, Sonnier) 

Smithson, Robert. "A Sedimentation of 
the Mind: Earth Projects," Artforum, 
Vol. 7, No. 1, September 1968, pp. 
44-50. (Andre, Morris) 

GUardi, Piero. "Primary Energy and the 
'Microemotive Artists'," Arts, Vol. 43, 
No. 1, September/October 1968, pp. 
48-51. (Andre, Hesse, Morris, Nauman, 
Sonnier) 

Hutchinson, Peter. "Earth in Upheaval, 
Earthworks and Landscapes," Arts, 
Vol. 43, No. 2, September 1968, pp. 
44-50. (Andre, Morris) 

Pleynet, Marcelin. "Peinture et 'Struc- 
turalisme'," Art International, Vol. 12, 
No. 9, November 1968, pp. 32-34. 
(Andre, Morris) 

Chandler, John. "The Last Word in 
Graphic Art," Art International, Vol. 
12, No. 9, November 1968, pp. 26-27. 
(Andre) 

Tillim, Sidney. "Earthworks and the New 
Picturesque," Artforum, Vol. 7, No. 4, 
December 1968, pp. 42-45. (Andre, 
Morris) 

Muller, Gregoire. "In the Parisian Desert," 
Arts, Vol. 43, No. 3, December/January 

1969, p. 52. 

Rose, Barbara. "Problems of Art Criticism, 
V, The Politics of Art, Part II, Artforum, 
Vol. 12, No. 5, January 1969, pp.44-49. 



Perreault, John. "Art: Disturbances," 
The Village Voice, Vol. 14, No. 25, 
January 23, 1969, p. 18. 

Tillim, Sidney. "Letters," Artforum, Vol. 
7, No. 6, February 1969, p. 8. 
(Andre, Morris) 

Meadmore, Clement. "Thoughts on 
Earthworks, Random Distribution, 
Softness, Horizontality and Gravity," 
Arts, Vol. 43, No. 4, February 1969, 
pp. 26-28. (Andre, Bollinger, Nauman, 
Saret, Serra) 

Rose, Barbara. "Why Read Art Criti- 
cism?", Neiv York Magazine, Vol. 2, 
No. 9, March 3, 1969, pp. 44-45. 

Karp, Ivan. "Here and Now," Arts, Vol. 
43, No. 5, March 1969, p. 49. (Nauman, 
Ryman, Saret, Serra, Sonnier, Tuttle) 

Pomeroy, Ralph. "Soft Objects," Arts, 
Vol. 43, No. 5, March 1969, pp. 46-48. 
(Hesse, Morris, Nauman, Rohm, Saret, 
Serra, Sonnier. Tuttle) 

Kozloff, Max. "Art,"T/!e Nation, Vol. 208, 
No. 11, March 17, 1969, pp. 347-348. 

Books : 

Merlau-Ponty, M. Phenomenology of 
Perception, London, 1962. 

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. PJiilosophical 
hivestigations. New York, 1964. 

Peckham, Morse. Man's Rage for Chaos, 
New York, 1965. 

Robbe-Grillet, Alain. For a Neiv Novel, 
Essays on Fiction, New York, 1965. 

Battcock, Gregory. The Neiv Art: A 
Critical Anthology, New York, 1966. 

Kultermann, Udo. Neue Dimensionen der 
Plastih, Tubingen, 1967. 

Ehrensweig, Anton. The Hidderi Order of 
Art (A Study in the Psychology of 
Artistic Imagination), Berkeley, 1967. 

Burnham, Jack. Beyond Modern Sculp- 
ture, New York, 1968. 



Catalogues : 

Lippard, Lucy R. "Eccentric Abstraction," 
Fischbach Gallery, New York, 1966. 
(Hesse, Nauman, Sonnier) 

"American Sculpture of the Sixties," 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
Los Angeles, 1967. (Andre, Morris, 
Nauman) 

Johnson, E. H. and Spear, A. T. "Three 
Young Americans," (Oherlin College 
Bulletin), Allen Art Museum, Oberlin, 
Ohio, 1968. (Nauman, Saret) 

"Some More Beginnings," Experiments 
in Art and Technology in Collaboration 
with the Brooklyn Museum and The 
Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
1968. 

"4.documenta," (Katalog 1), Kassel, 1968. 
(Andre, Morris, Nauman) 

"Here and Now," Washington University 
Gallery of Art, Steinberg Hall, 
St. Louis, 1969. (Nauman, Ryman, 
Saret, Serra, Sonnier, Tuttle) 

"Soft Art," New Jersey State Museum, 
Trenton, 1969. (Hesse, Morris, Rohm, 
Serra, Sonnier, Tuttle) 

"When Attitudes Become Form," 
Kunsthalle, Bern, 1969, (Andre, 
Bollinger, Ferrer, Hesse, Jenney, 
Morris, Nauman, Ryman, Saret, Serra, 
Sonnier, Tuttle) 

"Op Losse Schroeven," ("Square Pegs in 
Round Holes"), Amsterdam, 1969, 
(Andre, Bollinger, Ferrer, Jenney, 
Morris, Nauman, Ryman, Saret, Serra, 
Sonnier) 



61 



Officers and Trustees 

Flora Whitney Miller, Chairman of the Board 

David M. Solinger, President 

Flora Miller Irving, Vice President 

Alan H. Temple, Secretary and Treasurer 

Arthur G. Altschul 

John I. H. Baur 

Armand G. Erpf 

B. H. Friedman 

Lloyd Goodrich 

W. Barklie Henry 

Michael H. Irving 

G. Macculloch Miller 

Roy R. Neuberger, Emeritus 

Mrs. Laurance S. Rockefeller 

Robert W. Sarnoff 

Benno C. Schmidt 

Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney 

Mrs. John Hay Whitney 

Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, Founder 



Museum Staff 

John I. H. Baur, Director 

Lloyd Goodrich, Advisory Director 

Stephen E. Weil, Administrator 

John Gordon, Curator 

Margaret McKellar, Executive Secretary 

Robert M. Doty, Associate Curator 

James K. Monte, Associate Curator 

Marcia Tucker, Associate Curator 

Libby W. Seaberg, Librarian 

Eugene N. Lewis, Acting Head, Education Department 

Leon Levine, Public Relations 

Margaret Watherston, Conservator 

Amelia McCall Fenders, Assistant Secretary 
Althea Borden, Personnel Supervisor 
Sally J. Kuhn, Executive Secretary, 

Friends of the Whitney Museum 
Doris Palca, Sales and Information 
Marie Appleton 
John Murray, Superintendent 
John E. Martin, Head Preparator 



Index 

Numbers in italics refer to photographs 

page 4, 52 Carl Andre 

52 Michael Asher 
6, 52 Lynda Benglis 
8, 53 William Bolhnger 

10,53 JohnDuflP 

12, 53 Rafael Ferrer 

48, 53 Robert Fiore 

14, 53 Philip Glass 

16, 53 Eva Hesse 

18, 54 Neil Jenney 

20, 54 Barry LeVa 

22, 54 Robert Lobe 

24, 55 Robert Morris 

26, 56 Bruce Nauman 

28, 56 Steve Reich 

30, 57 Robert Rohm 

32, 58 Robert Ryman 

36, 58 Richard Serra 

38, 58 Joel Shapiro 

40, 58 Michael Snow 

42, 59 Keith Sonnier 

44, 59 Richard Tuttle 



© 1969. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. 

Photographs : pages 20-21 courtesy of Barry Le Va; pages 24-25 by 
Steve Balkin; pages 44-45 by Eric Pollitzer. All other 
photographs by Robert Fiore. 

Typographic Composition by Volk and Huxley, Inc. 

Printed by S. D. Scott Printing Co., Inc. 

Designed by Helen Kirkpatrick 



% 



'^mf>^.-^?^' ■ ' 



Michael Snow 






, T 



*.*<-,, 






«% 



JP=v.. 



*,. 



■life 





ri